Supramolecular Chemistry: From Biological Inspiration to by Peter J. Cragg

By Peter J. Cragg

Supramolecular chemistry is usually defined because the learn of chemistry past the easy molecular point but it's always forgotten what number of the pioneering su-pramolecular chemists seemed to molecular biology for his or her rules. the hunt for an aldolase enzyme mimic, the invention of crown ethers that transported potas-sium as successfully as valinomycin, and the synthesis of an antitubercular com-pound that resembled a transmembrane protein, all element to a organic inspira-tion. because the box emerged within the final area of the twentieth Century, advances within the synthesis of multifunctional molecules, coupled to a better figuring out of organic methods on the molecular point, have led supramolecular chemists to layout compounds that not just mimic these in Nature but in addition have diagnostic and healing applications.

The publication opens with an outline of supramolecular chemistry. In next chapters parallels are drawn with organic phenomena: the formation of proteins and different biomolecules, the evolution of cells, and the layout of channel-forming molecules and enzymes. the applying of supramolecular rules to sensors and magic bullet remedies is defined and the way forward for supramolecular therapeutics is taken into account. The intriguing mixture of supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology is mentioned including the possibility that nanoengineered clever fabrics might at some point movement within the physique to regard sufferers earlier than they turned conscious of any symptoms.

Supramolecular Chemistry: From organic suggestion to Biomedical Applications is geared toward postgraduates operating on the chemistry/life technology interface and ultimate yr undergraduate complicated ideas in supramolecular chemistry. it really is was hoping that it'll even be of price to teachers and pros drawn to the relevance of supramolecular chemistry to biology and vice versa.

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Supramolecular Chemistry: From Biological Inspiration to Biomedical Applications

Supramolecular chemistry is usually defined because the examine of chemistry past the easy molecular point but it is usually forgotten what number of the pioneering su-pramolecular chemists appeared to molecular biology for his or her principles. the quest for an aldolase enzyme mimic, the invention of crown ethers that transported potas-sium as successfully as valinomycin, and the synthesis of an antitubercular com-pound that resembled a transmembrane protein, all aspect to a organic inspira-tion.

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Calixpyrroles have been of considerable interest of late as they are able to bind anions, with a particular preference for fluoride [43]. HO N H OH HO OH HO OH HN NH H N HO tetraspirocyclohexylcalix[4]pyrrole OH tetrabutyl[4]resorcinarene Fig. 11 A calixpyrrole and resorcinarene The resorcinarenes were investigated by Niederl and Vogel [44] before Högberg [45] developed the most reproducible synthetic routes. Subsequently the Cram group expanded the chemistry of these compounds by cross-linking phenolic oxygens with groups to make ‘cavitands’ that extended the molecules’ ‘walls’ giving them greater depth [46].

The ‘crown’ nomenclature describes how many atoms are linked in a ring and how many of these are atoms other than carbon. It is assumed that the heteroatoms are oxygens so, for example, a crown ether of 18 linked atoms, six of which are oxygen, would be [18]crown-6. An analogue of this compound incorporating benzene in place of a –CH2 CH2 - link would be benzo[18]crown-6. If, instead, one of the oxygen atoms was replaced by nitrogen the compound would be aza[18]crown-6. The discovery of crown ethers by Pedersen is a well known story in the world of supramolecular chemistry [57].

The importance of the ribosomes has been reflected in the number of Nobel Prize recipients associated with their discovery (Palade in 1974) and elucidation of their structures and functions (Ramakrishnan, Steitz and Yonath in 2009). α-Hemolysin is a transmembrane protein designed to disrupt cell membranes and initiate lysis. Ghadiri has shown that single strand DNA can be threaded through a heptameric α-hemolysin protein, derived from Staphylococcus aureus, that has been embedded in a lipid bilayer [84].

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