By Michael P. Bishop, Helgi Björnsson, Wilfried Haeberli, Johannes Oerlemans, John F. Shroder, Martyn Tranter, Vijay P. Singh, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya
The earth’s cryosphere, such as snow, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, ice cabinets, sea ice, river and lake ice, and permafrost, includes approximately seventy five% of the earth’s clean water. It exists at just about all latitudes, from the tropics to the poles, and performs an essential function in controlling the worldwide weather approach. It additionally offers direct seen proof of the impact of weather switch, and, accordingly, calls for right figuring out of its advanced dynamics. This encyclopedia generally specializes in a number of the points of snow, ice and glaciers, but in addition covers different cryospheric branches, and gives updated details and uncomplicated recommendations on proper themes. It contains alphabetically prepared and professionally written, finished and authoritative educational articles through recognized overseas specialists in person fields. The encyclopedia features a large spectrum of issues, starting from the atmospheric tactics chargeable for snow formation; transformation of snow to ice and alterations of their homes; category of ice and glaciers and their world wide distribution; glaciation and ice a long time; glacier dynamics; glacier floor and subsurface features; geomorphic methods and panorama formation; hydrology and sedimentary structures; permafrost degradation; dangers attributable to cryospheric adjustments; and developments of glacier retreat at the worldwide scale in addition to the impression of weather switch. This publication can function a resource of reference on the undergraduate and graduate point and support to higher comprehend snow, ice and glaciers. it's going to even be an essential instrument containing really expert literature for geologists, geographers, climatologists, hydrologists, and water assets engineers; in addition to in case you are engaged within the perform of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, surroundings administration, and different suitable topics.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series)
This strategy offers the advantage that existing software for data processing can be used. For this strategy, an area sensor is required (frame camera). The problem for this solution is that a high-resolution area sensor providing the same information as 230 by 230 mm photos captured on film would be very expensive. One solution for this problem is for instance to use four AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR GLACIAL MONITORING overlapping smaller sensors and to match these four images together (like Digital Mapping Camera, DMC from Intergraph).
Org P. in Netra R. edu CONTRIBUTORS Helen E. nz Alan W. edu Jeffrey Ridley Met Office, Hadley Centre FitzRoy Road Exeter EX1 3PB UK George A. cl Gerard H. is xxxv xxxvi Bob E. O. edu Arun B. O. org John F. edu CONTRIBUTORS Martin J. is A. K. com Pratap Singh Integrated Natural Resources Management (INRM) Consultants Pvt. O. edu Vijay P. com Claudio Smiraglia Department of Earth Sciences “A. it Andy M. uk Dan J. Smith University of Victoria Tree-Ring Laboratory Department of Geography University of Victoria Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3R4 Canada Sharon L.
Iturrizaga Ablation Depression, Figure 1 Cross section through an ablation depression. Ablation Depression, Figure 2 Ablation depression in combination with lateroglacial sedimentation complexes at 3900 m at the Yazghil glacier in the Karakoram Mountains. (Photo: L. ) the glacier margins, even at altitudes of 5,000 m depending on the color and mineralogical composition of the geological parent material (Visser, 1938; Iturrizaga, 2007). Ablation processes include the melting and runoff or evaporation and sublimation of the glacier ice, which results in wasting of the ice and mass loss.