Dielectric Elastomers as Electromechanical Transducers: by Federico Carpi, Danilo De Rossi, Roy Kornbluh, Ronald Edward

By Federico Carpi, Danilo De Rossi, Roy Kornbluh, Ronald Edward Pelrine, Peter Sommer-Larsen

This e-book presents a accomplished and up-to-date perception into dielectric elastomers; the most promising periods of polymer-based clever fabrics and applied sciences. This know-how can be utilized in a really huge variety of purposes, from robotics and automation to the biomedical field.
The want for better transducer functionality has led to massive efforts in the direction of the advance of units hoping on fabrics with intrinsic transduction homes. those fabrics, frequently termed as "smart" or "intelligent", contain greater piezoelectrics and magnetostrictive or shape-memory fabrics. rising electromechanical transduction applied sciences, in response to so-called ElectroActive Polymers (EAP), have received enormous cognizance. EAP provide the possibility of functionality exceeding different shrewdpermanent fabrics, whereas preserving the price and flexibility inherent to polymer fabrics. in the EAP kin, "dielectric elastomers", are of specific curiosity as they express stable performance, simplicity of constitution and robustness. Dielectric elastomer transducers are quickly rising as high-performance "pseudo-muscular" actuators, priceless for other kinds of initiatives. additional, as well as actuation, dielectric elastomers have additionally been proven to provide special chances for more suitable generator and sensing devices.
Dielectric elastomer transduction is permitting a big diversity of latest functions that have been precluded to the other EAP or smart-material expertise until eventually recently.
This e-book presents a accomplished and up to date perception into dielectric elastomer transduction, masking all its basic elements. The booklet bargains with transduction ideas, uncomplicated fabrics houses, layout of effective gadget architectures, fabric and machine modelling, in addition to applications.
* Concise and accomplished remedy for practitioners and academics
* publications the reader during the most up-to-date advancements in electroactive-polymer-based technology
* Designed for ease of use with sections on basics, fabrics, units, types and functions

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Extra resources for Dielectric Elastomers as Electromechanical Transducers: Fundamentals, Materials, Devices, Models and Applications of an Emerging Electroactive Polymer Technology

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6) where is the bulk resistivity of the polymer and f is the frequency in hertz. That the electrical efficiency is dependent on frequency is not surprising. The relative amount of energy lost from electrical leakage increases with the amount of time that the voltage is applied across the electrodes during an actuation cycle. The efficiency of the electric driver circuit can be included in the overall efficiency by consideration of the electromechanical coupling efficiency k2. 7) Materials with low coupling efficiencies are difficult to operate efficiently even if there is no intrinsic energy loss mechanism (low electrical and mechanical loss factors) because low coupling requires a large amount of electrical energy to be removed or recovered from the actuator relative to the work output.

Each material is optimized for a relatively narrow temperature range. 3 Creep and stress relaxation In addition to the higher frequency effects discussed above, dielectric elastomer materials are subject to creep or stress relaxation. Creep and stress relaxation are known to be particularly small in silicones (for an elastomer). For acrylic, creep and stress relaxation can be significant. The requirement for high prestrain further exacerbates creep and stress relaxation. Creep and stress relaxation can affect the usage of acrylics in some applications requiring high precision.

However, for large strains with a linear stress–strain relation, this formula must be modified because as the thickness strain becomes increasingly negative, the film flattens out and the area over which the pressure must be applied increases. 4) This equation agrees with the more common formula at small strains but is significantly higher for strains greater than 20%. g. [2]). It can be clearly seen from the equations that dielectric elastomer performance depends on the macroscopic permittivity of the polymer as well as on its modulus of elasticity.

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