Decision-Making in Committees: Game-Theoretic Analysis by Nicola Friederike Maaser

By Nicola Friederike Maaser

Political and financial associations are usually ruled via committees that face the problem to reconcile the personal tastes in their individuals. How may still selection ideas be designed to generate reasonable and sustainable agreements, for instance if committee participants signify teams of alternative sizes? This publication makes use of game-theoretic techniques and types to handle the difficulty of political decision-making procedures. as well as delivering a survey on simple game-theoretic instruments within the research of political judgements, the writer appears at particular concerns resembling two-tiered balloting structures or the impression of lobbyists on legislative committees, and exhibits how the types might be utilized to real-world contexts equivalent to the european decision-making institutions.

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2)) under the voting rule in use ()),39 and (b) that nonnull players can expect to receive strictly more than their status quo payoffs ((). 39 As is common practice in the literature, the terms ‘null player’ and ‘dummy player’ are used interchangeably here and refer to players whose marginal contribution is null with respect to every coalition. fi g/ D 0 (see Roth, 1988, p. 23). B; W/ D di . 15) for some function ' W W ! B/ is the asymmetric Nash bargaining solution, introduced by Kalai (1977), with weights determined by '.

The median voter theorem states a sufficient condition, one-dimensionality and single-peakedness, for the existence of an undominated outcome – the median ideal point (or a closed interval of median points if the number of voters is even) – under 19 The absence of value consensus is expressed in Arrow’s axiom of ‘unrestricted domain’. N /. Conditions (a) and (b) express individual rationality and efficiency, respectively. 21 In Arrow’s 1963[1951] model, individuals have binary preference relations over a finite set of alternatives, which are assumed to satisfy the usual consistency conditions such as reflexivity, transitivity, and completeness.

One criticism, advanced most prominently by Garrett and Tsebelis (1996, 1999), concerns the fact that power indices disregard players’ preferences (for replies see, for example, Holler and Widgr´en, 1999; Steunenberg et al. 1999; Napel and Widgr´en, 2004). Whilst this point is rather easily countered by pointing to the intended use of the indices for a priori analysis, a second criticism by Garrett and Tsebelis, namely that power indices do not take into account relevant features of the decision-making situation, is far more applicable.

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