Crystallization Processes in Fats and Lipid Systems by Nissim Garti, Kiyotaka Sato

By Nissim Garti, Kiyotaka Sato

Participants in pharmaceutical sciences, chemistry, nutrition technology, and biology evaluation rising concepts, approaches, and mechanisms in fats crystallization and polymorphism of latest fat, advanced blends of strong point fat, fatty acids, non-saponifiable lipids, and mono- and diglycerides. a few topics contain interfacial crystallization in emulsions and microemulsions, lyotropic liquid crystals and different self-assembled constructions, and crystallization in limited volumes. different subject matters comprise polymorphism and part transitions of fatty acids and acylglycerols, fats crystal networks, crystallization houses of cocoa butter, and separation and crystallization of oleaginous parts in cosmetics. Garti is professor of chemistry and head of the Casali Institute of utilized Chemistry on the Hebrew college of Jerusalem, Israel. Sato teaches utilized organic technology at Hiroshima college, Japan.

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Example text

The transitions E or B → C occur by heating and are irreversible. Hence, the Ostwald step rule can be observed below 32°C only. p. 2°C on heating. 3°C and crystallizes more rapidly than β from the melt phase. The stability of the β phase is confirmed by solubility, β being less soluble than the other two forms in decane and acetonitrile. The transition α → β (at 6°C in acetonitrile) and γ → β (at Ϫ5°C in decane) are solution mediated [25]. Petroselinic acid (cis-6-octadecenoic acid, C 18H 34O 2 ) is a naturally occurring cis-monounsaturated fatty acid with a rather unusual crystal structure.

Some drawbacks follow from the crude application of this theory: (a) the theory coherently applies to crystals growing from pure vapor only; (b) neither supersaturation nor temperature effects are considered; and (c) factors concerning the growth medium (interactions crystal surface/solvent and impurities) are not taken into account. 2. According to Jackson [58], microscopically rough or smooth surface morphologies can be classified by means of the surface entropy factor α, defined Equilibrium and Crystallization Kinetics 45 by α ϭ 4ε/kT, where ε is the energy gained when a crystal-fluid bond generates at the interface.

Sequences of the same lamella, respectively. Experimental evidences of polytypism, for long-chain compounds, were found from X-ray structure determination [16] and from the comparison between surface structures generated by growth (or dissolution) spirals on (001) forms of normal alkanes [14,17] and fatty acids [18,19]. A polytype can also be considered as a periodically repeated twin, from both the structural and energetic points of view. According to that, the difference between the Gibbs free energy (G) values of different polytypes must be very close each other.

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