By Stanley Monkhouse
Cranial nerves are all for head and neck functionality, and approaches equivalent to consuming, speech and facial features. This clinically orientated survey of cranial nerve anatomy and serve as, for college kids of medication, dentistry and speech remedy, may also be precious for postgraduate physicians and GPs, and experts in head and neck healthcare. After an introductory part surveying cranial nerve association and tough fundamentals corresponding to ganglia, nuclei and mind stem pathways, the nerves are thought of in practical teams. In each one bankruptcy, the most anatomical beneficial properties of every nerve are through medical features and information of medical checking out. uncomplicated line diagrams accompany the textual content.
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Additional resources for Cranial Nerves Functional Anatomy
Connections from the trigeminal nuclei include those to: 1 the sensory cortex and other cortical centres for perception: we know what we are doing; 48 Trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal nerves 2 the limbic system: a habit like this pleases us because our mothers conditioned us to do it when we were children (quite wrongly as it happens since soap is bad for the skin); 3 the reticular formation: it wakes us up; 4 the hypothalamus: vasoconstriction or vasodilatation, according to the temperature of the water.
The arterial supply of the brain stem is from branches of the basilar artery. Blood supply Blood vessels supplying the motor pathways are very important. A vascular lesion affecting any part of the pathway will have devastating effects. This is particularly so in the internal capsule since the same arteries supply not only motor but also neighbouring sensory pathways. A haemorrhage or an occlusion of the striate arteries is likely to affect a large area of the body leading to contralateral sensory and motor signs.
Branchial arches, muscles and nerves. Branchial arch Muscles Nerves First Muscles of mastication, etc. Muscles of facial expression, etc. Stylopharyngeus Pharyngeal muscles Laryngeal muscles Mandibular Vc Second Third Fourth Sixth Facial VII Glossopharyngeal IX Pharyngeal branches of X Recurrent laryngeal of X – The five branchial arches consist of ridges of mesoderm passing ventral–dorsal on either side of the foregut at the head end of the embryo. For reasons which need not concern us, these are numbered, cranial–caudal, as I, II, III, IV and VI.