By Cornel Hagiopol
Copolymerization is a really commonly used commercial strategy, actually the dominant procedure in macromolecular chemistry. With the arrival of frequent computing energy, this e-book could be very beneficial either to educational researchers in copolymerization and to researchers in considering the synthesis of polymers resembling plastics, rubbers, chemical fibers, and paints. A disk with 15 computing device courses accompanies the book.
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Extra resources for Copolymerization: Toward a Systematic Approach
1 - m2) ... m2 M2 m\ -y5. r\ _ M2 ... 10) The values of the reactivity ratios are determined by using the least squares method. 10) are not spectacular, but they allow for a less ambiguous solution than that provided by the FR method. , for a-methyl styrene-methacrylonitrile and a-methyl styrene-acrylonitrile copolymerizations 157 ). However, the YBR method does not always yield better results than those obtained with the FR method. 2 compares F values for pairs of reactivity ratios determined by the FR (both variants FR-I and FR-2 obtained after switching indexes) and the YBR methods.
Errors in reactivity ratios make it difficult to use them, particularly when a nonlinear curve needs to be extrapolated from a limited number of experimental points. A solution to this problem was put forward by Bauduin and Meghabar. 23) is replaced by a function of second order in M 10. The graphic method becomes analytic. This approach replaces the subjective character of the KC method and provides better reactivity ratios than those estimated by Kuo and Chen (Fig. 17), but for the copolymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) and methyl methacrylate it gives a value that lacks physical meaning (rVAc < 0).
When one of the reactivity ratios is very close to zero, linear methods like the FR, YBR, or KT method can lead to negative values which do not have a physical meaning, strongly stressing the significant effect of the experimental error. 4. Other Linear Methods The Mayo-Lewis equation indicates that if one comonomer is known to possess a vanishing kjj, a single experiment at one monomer ratio will determine rj = kj/k U' The most frequent cases, however, are those where rj O. Consequently, simultaneous determination of the two reactivity ratios is required.