By Eric Raimy, Charles E. Cairns
The essays during this quantity handle foundational questions in phonology that lower throughout diverse colleges of idea in the self-discipline. The topic of modularity runs via all of them, even if, and those essays reveal some great benefits of the modular method of phonology, both investigating interactions between particular modules or constructing particular elements of illustration inside of a selected module. even supposing the members take divergent perspectives on more than a few matters, they agree at the value of representations and questions of modularity in phonology. Their essays deal with the prestige of phonological good points, syllable conception, metrical constitution, the structure of the phonological part, and interplay between elements of phonology. within the early Nineteen Nineties the increase of Optimality Theory--which recommended that natural computation may resolve the issues of representations and modularity--eclipsed the centrality of those matters for phonology. This e-book is exclusive in supplying a coherent view of phonology that isn't Optimality idea dependent. The essays during this ebook, all via uncommon phonologists, exhibit that computation and illustration are inherently associated; they don't deny Optimality thought, yet try and stream the sphere of phonology past it.
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Extra resources for Contemporary Views on Architecture and Representations in Phonology (Current Studies in Linguistics)
In these languages, stops lack speciﬁcations for both [sti¤ vocal cords] and [slack vocal cords]. In this analysis, [sti¤ vocal cords] and [slack vocal cords] are both marked features, since not all languages make use of them. 3 Marked Feature Avoidance On the basis of these observations, we may state the principle of Marked Feature Avoidance as in (12). (12) Within any class of sounds in which a given feature F is potentially distinctive, the number of sounds bearing marked values of F is less than (‘‘<’’) the number bearing unmarked values of F.
N. Clements among simple stops but also among strident stops (a¤ricates). Examples of the 6 predicted contrasts for simple plosives are listed in (2), with illustrative languages drawn from Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996. (2) Contrast Apical anterior vs. nonapical anterior Apical anterior vs. retroﬂex Apical anterior vs. postalveolar/palatal Nonapical anterior vs. retroﬂex Nonapical anterior vs. postalveolar/palatal Retroﬂex vs. postalveolar/palatal Example Apical /t/ vs. ) Temne Apical /t/ vs. retroﬂex /Ò/ Yanyuwa Apical /t/ vs.
Such ﬁndings suggest that the ability to distinguish major phonetic categories— typically corresponding to quantally deﬁned features—exists in early infancy. In later infancy, the ability to discriminate speech sounds becomes ‘‘ﬁne-tuned’’ to the categories of the native language. By 6 months of age, infants have established prototypes for the vowels used in their language (Kuhl et al. 1992) and start to lose Role of Features in Phonological Inventories 23 sensitivity to nonnative vowels (Polka and Werker 1994).