Cerebral Vasospasm: New Strategies in Research and Treatment by Talat Kiris

By Talat Kiris

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Bechmann I, Lossau S, Steiner B, Mor G, Gimsa U, Nitsch R (2000) Reactive astrocytes upregulate Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) expression but do not undergo programmed cell death during the course of anterograde degeneration. Glia 32: 25–41 2. Cheng J, Zhou T, Liu C, Shapiro JP, Brauer MJ, Kiefer MC, Barr PJ, Mountz JD (1994) Protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis by a soluble form of the Fas molecule. Science 263: 1759–1762 3. Chio C, Benveniste EN (2004) Fas ligand=Fas system in the brain: regulator of immune and apoptotic responses.

However, an increase in SOD activity relative to GSH-Px activity creates a state of excess OH À production. An increase in the SOD=GSH-Px activity ratio following SAH correlates with the incidence of vasospasm [23] and has the potential of being a significant source of free radical mediated damage. Á Á Free radical mediated acute brain injury At a cellular level, free radicals lead to neuronal damage by promoting, lipid peroxidation, protein breakdown, and DNA damage that in turn leads to cellular apoptosis, endothelial injury, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability [17, 56, 69, 71].

Chio C, Benveniste EN (2004) Fas ligand=Fas system in the brain: regulator of immune and apoptotic responses. Brain Res Rev 44: 65–81 4. Choi C, Park JY, Lee J, Lim JH, Shin EC, Ahn YS, Kim CH, Kim SJ, Kim JD, Choi IS, Choi IH (1999) Fas ligand and Fas are expressed constitutively in human astrocytes and the expression increases with IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alfa or IFN-gamma. J Immunol 162: 1889–1895 5. D’Souza SD, Bonetti B, Balasingam B, Cashman NR, Barker PA, Troutt AB, Raine CS, Antel JP (1996) Multiple sclerosis: Fas signaling in oligodendrocyte cell death.

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