By Roger T. Beckwith
This article bargains with quite a few tough difficulties in Jewish and early Christian idea and perform, in the common parts of the calendar and chronology. New difficulties are tackled, and previous difficulties are reconsidered. the recent difficulties are intertestamental, and contain the Qumran calendar, the phases within the improvement of Judaism among the Testaments, and some of the chronologies utilized in early Judaism to degree previous and destiny time. those chapters are generally of Jewish curiosity, although the last-mentioned has a Christian bearing additionally, centering because it does on messianic expectation. The previous difficulties all have a Christian bearing, and are biblical or patristic, although illustrated right here by means of intertestamental proof. They contain the connection among the Sabbath and Sunday, the date of the crucifixion, the starting place of Easter and Whitsun, and the date of Christmas.
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Extra resources for Calendar and Chronology, Jewish and Christian: Biblical, Intertestamental and Patristic Studies
The Hellenists, of course, did not oppose the Sabbath rest, but no more did Jesus: on the contrary, it was the Sabbath rest from normal weekday duties that set people free for the higher activities which Jesus practised and emphasised— acts of worship and acts of mercy. And this was where his emphasis lay. The Sabbath was not to be a day of idleness: it was to be a day of different activity. What there was little time for on weekdays there was much time for on the Sabbath. One should therefore use this freedom to the glory of God and to the benefit of mankind.
He has also plainly declared that the seventh day is ordained for us by the Law, to be a sign of that which is our seventh faculty, namely reason, whereby we have knowledge of things human and divine (Gifford , s translation). Though what Aristobulus says is not entirely explicit, he appears to be making three main points: (i) God who created the world gave the Sabbath to all human beings (not just to Israel) as a rest from the troubles of life. (ii) The Sabbath (as the memorial of Creation, or because God on the first Sabbath "saw everything that he had made") 6 may be called the birthday of light, by which all things are beheld.
3, was in one sense a parenthesis between the age of the patriarchs and the age of the gospel. Yet even those features of revelation which are older than the Mosaic Law and belong to the age o f the patriarchs have sometimes been fulfilled, and in the literal sense abolished, under the gospel: circumcision and ritual sacrifice (both prominent in the Book of Genesis) are cases in point. The mark of a "creation ordinance" is not that it antedates the Law but that it begins with man's very creation.