Anatomy and Human Movement. Structure and Function by Nigel Palastanga

By Nigel Palastanga

For the second one variation, the textual content and illustrations were reorganized and plenty of of the diagrams were redrawn or changed. New sections at the cardiovascular, breathing, digestive and urogenital structures, and at the eye and the ear were additional, in addition to new textual content on useful actions, palpation and utilized anatomy. moreover, the part overlaying the pinnacle, neck and trunk has been thoroughly reorganized. however, the preliminary goal of the textual content has been retained in order that it continues to be a textbook basically all for the musculoskeletal process and its program to human circulate

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6b). From the right atrium blood is directed towards the foramen ovale so that most of it enters the left atrium, then to the aorta to supply the head and upper limbs. Blood entering the right atrium via the superior vena cava passes to the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk. The high resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary vessels results in the blood passing to the descending aorta via the ductus arteriosus. From the descending aorta blood flows towards the placenta via the two umbilical arteries to be reoxygenated to begin the cycle once more.

The epimeres come to lie between the transverse and spinous processes, giving rise to the musculature of the trunk and neck. The hypomeres give rise to the prevertebral muscles (the scalenes, quadratus lumborum, psoas and piriformis) and the musculature of the thoracic and abdominal walls. The occipital myotomes do not participate in the formation of the musculature of the trunk or neck. They give rise to the muscle mass of the tongue. That part of the paraxial mesoderm that does not become segmented eventually becomes incorporated into the branchial arches, each of which is innervated by a cranial nerve.

Pigment granules associated with axillary glands produce a slight coloration of the SKIN, ITS APPENDAGES AND SPECIAL SENSES females they show cyclical changes associated with the menstrual cycle. The glands which open at the margins of the eyelid (ciliary glands) are modified, uncoiled sweat glands, as are the glands of the external auditory meatus (ceruminous glands). The cells of these latter glands contain a yellowish pigment which colours the wax secretion (cerumin). M a m m a r y gland (breast) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands, being accessory to the reproductive function in females, secreting milk (lactation) for the nourishment of the infant.

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