By Zarko Mijajlovic
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This chapter opens with a review of some of the fundamental properties of light sources that are of particular importance to fiber optic sensors. The various types of light sources are then described as well as their output characteristics. 2 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHT SOURCES Light sources used to support fiber optic sensors produce light that is often dominated by either spontaneous or stimulated emission. An intermediate case that is important for certain classes of fiber optic sensors is based on superradiance, which is a combination of both types of emission.
The transverse electric mode has a zero axial electric component. The designation HE or EH is given depending on whether the transverse magnetic field or the electric field is larger. 9c is a schematic representation of the electric field distribution obtained when the TE01 mode is combined with the HE21 mode. This lobe pattern can be observed when the output light is viewed using polarized light. 9d shows the complicated speckled pattern that results when large-order multimode fiber is viewed using monochromatic light.
9 49 (a) Multimode and (b) single spatial mode output from laser diodes. 11 shows several methods that may be used to couple the light output from a laser diode into an optical fiber. The first method utilizes a spherical microlens that is placed between the diode and the optical fiber. The second method forms a hemispherical lens on the end of the fiber by melting the fiber end. This method is sometimes complemented by tapering the end of the fiber before forming the hemispherical end. Tapering down the fiber effectively increases the numerical aperture of the optical fiber so that it more nearly matches that of the laser diode.