Additives for Plastics. State of the Art by Raymond B. Seymour

By Raymond B. Seymour

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Coran, A. , Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 15, 2471 (1971). 7. Skogman, R. , and Scheie, C. , "The Effect of Temperature on the Moisture Absorption of Kraft Paper ΤΑΡΡΙ", 52, 489 (1969). ADDITIVES FOR PLASTICS, VOLUME 1 ASBESTIFORM FILLERS J. H. Kietzman Johns-Manville Research & Development Denver, Colorado I. A. INTRODUCTION Historical Background The use of asbestos in plastics goes back to the early days of reinforced thermosets, soon after the discovery of phenolformaldehyde resins by Baekeland.

Further, the fibers should be stiff enough to constrain the matrix, yet they should resist breakage during processing. ( ) They have an average aspect ratio of over 100. In this case, the aspect ratio is the ratio of the average length to the average of the major diameters of an elliptical cross section. Dried cellulose fibers are ribbon shaped. Hardwood cellulose fibers have the advantage over softwood fibers in that they are smaller, though of the same approximate aspect ratio. 5mm long with major and minor diameters of 15 and 5 micrometers on the average.

3 B. Preparation of Short Cellulose/Elastomer Composites In the preparation of short fiber/elastomer composites, difficulties in several areas may arise. Fibers may not become readily dispersed or may break during mixing and orientation. Fibers can agglomerate into knotty masses during mixing or mixing equipment may fail due to excessive energy requirements. Both constituent properties and pro­ cessing techniques play a role in processing characteristics of short fiber/elastomer composites. These problems are mostly overcome by pretreatment of cellulose fibers with coating materials which facilitate the fiber dispersion and induce bond formation between the fiber and the elastomeric matrix.

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