By Robert Pearce, Andrina Stiles
The recent variants of entry to Historycombine all of the strengths of this well-loved sequence with a brand new layout and lines that let all scholars entry to the content material and learn talents had to in achieving examination luck. This 3rd version of this well known name has been up-to-date to mirror the desires of the present a degree necessities. The identify examines explanation why growth in the direction of unification used to be so sluggish at the beginning and why after 1850 it grew to become so fast. In doing so, it supplies due recognition to the jobs performed by means of Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Charles Albert and Victor Emmanuel, and makes an attempt to respond to the query 'Who made Italy '. through the ebook key dates, phrases and concerns are highlighted, and historic interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are integrated to consolidate wisdom and realizing of the interval, and examination sort questions and information for every exam board give you the chance to improve examination abilities.
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Key question Were Mazzini’s ideas practical, or were they too idealistic and visionary? Key question How effective a political activist was Mazzini? • • • • • • stress on nationalism led Karl Marx to dismiss Mazzini as ‘that everlasting old ass’, but Marx fatally underestimated the importance of national allegiances. So, Italy had to be united. He did not want a federal Italy, which might retain the old foreign rulers. Instead, the whole peninsula should be independent, with one central government and locally elected authorities.
He increased the power of the Church in Piedmont. • He tightened the already severe censorship laws. Small wonder, then, that Mazzini and Garibaldi, two key nationalist ﬁgures, left Piedmont, soon to be followed by Gioberti (see page 30) who, anxious to publish his proposals for a federation of Italian states presided over by the Pope, left for the liberal city of Brussels. Another ﬁgure, Count Camillo de Cavour, also left Piedmont, which he dubbed ‘that intellectual hell’, preferring the greater freedom of expression found almost anywhere else, even in Austrian Lombardy.
This was due above all to the work of a dedicated revolutionary intellectual, Giuseppe Mazzini, dubbed by Metternich ‘the most dangerous man in Europe’. 26 | The Uniﬁcation of Italy 1815–70 Proﬁle: Giuseppe Mazzini 1805–72 – Born in Genoa, intelligent, sensitive and physically frail 1821 – Became a nationalist after seeing Piedmontese refugee revolutionaries begging in the streets 1822–7 – Studied medicine and then law 1827 – Joined the Carbonari, but was betrayed in 1830. While imprisoned, he decided he must work for the independence and uniﬁcation of Italy.