200 Years of Syntax: A critical survey by Giorgio Graffi

By Giorgio Graffi

This booklet argues convincingly opposed to the common opinion that only a few syntactic experiences have been performed ahead of the Nineteen Fifties. hoping on the precise research of a big volume of unique resources, it exhibits that syntactic concerns have been in reality rigorously investigated all through either the nineteenth century and through the 1st 1/2 the twentieth century. in addition, it illustrates how the large improvement of syntactic examine within the final fifty years has already condemned even numerous fresh rules and analyses to oblivion, and deeply inspired present study courses. The wealth of study undertaken during the last centuries is gifted the following in a scientific method, taking as its start line the connection of syntax with psychology all through this era. The serious principles expressed within the textual content are according to a close representation of the various syntactic types and analyses instead of at the polemics among the various colleges.

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1) forms an 'organic unity', which is realized only by virtue of the different ranking of its constituent words. This ranking, in its turn, is due to the fact that all these relationships mean either the subsumption of a particular into a universal, or the reduction of a universal to a particular. As a consequence, one of the members of each relationship is the 'superordinate factor': the general into which the particular is subsumed, or the particular to which the general is reduced. The other member of the relation­ ship is the 'subordinate factor'.

Not one of these re­ search lines (psychologism in linguistics, development of language seen as intellectual capacity, ethnopsychology) is likely to have originated with Stein­ thal. L. Heyse (see below). The view of language as a developing intellectual capacity is again an achievement of Humboldt's, and ethnopsychological prospects come partly from Hegel. Steinthal, however, succeeded in merging these various research lines into a unique system. He also defined a set of problems which lay at the heart of lin­ guistic research beween the middle of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century.

12). Following this path, Becker also distinguishes a 'logical form' in language which is not to be directly identified with 'thought', even if is strictly deter­ mined by it. 1) forms an 'organic unity', which is realized only by virtue of the different ranking of its constituent words. This ranking, in its turn, is due to the fact that all these relationships mean either the subsumption of a particular into a universal, or the reduction of a universal to a particular. As a consequence, one of the members of each relationship is the 'superordinate factor': the general into which the particular is subsumed, or the particular to which the general is reduced.

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